Month: January 2019

Weight Changes in Early Adult Life

Being in your early 20s can be both fun and a challenge.  For many, this stage is the beginning of an entirely new phase of life – the prospects of having your first job, entering into new relationships or family, or continuing the challenges of learning new things.

In every new life phase comes new routines.  And this may cause drastic changes in lifestyle.  People may start to become less active in the gym or sports because of new challenges at work, or in the family.  Food habits change because of different environments like being with different set of people with different food habits.

Although some studies may vary in their conclusions (Proper, Picavet, Bogers, Verschuren, & Bemelmans, 2013), the changes in the lifestyle may pose potential problems for some because this may translate to weight gain if unchecked in the long run.  Financial struggles and challenges resulting from new responsibilities from the emerging independent adult can also predispose to weight gain (Conklin, Forouhi, Brunner, & Monsivais, 2014).

Knowing these issues and not losing focus in maintaining a healthy lifestyle not only prevents weight gain, but also decreases the potential for chronic diseases in the future.  Managing your time schedules regularly to incorporate even short periods of physical activity can help burn excess fat from previous overindulgence.  Incorporating mindfulness exercises during meals may decrease the risk of overeating and overconsumption of calories.  Being in the company of health-conscious individuals can further motivate you in carrying on with your fitness goals.

Choose to make your health a priority while in the prime of life. 

References:

Conklin, A. I., Forouhi, N. G., Brunner, E. J., & Monsivais, P. (2014). Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study: Persistent Hardship Increases 11-Year Weight Gain. Obesity, n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20875

Proper, K. I., Picavet, H. S. J., Bogers, R. P., Verschuren, W. M., & Bemelmans, W. J. (2013). The association between adverse life events and body weight change: results of a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-957

PCOS and Weight Gain

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder that is characterized by a state of increased androgen levels (measured either clinically or through laboratory tests), a dysregulation of ovulatory functioning, and polycystic ovarian morphology.

<img src="Embed from Getty Images” alt=”Diagram of ovaries”/>

Although patients may remain without symptoms, most notable characteristics are a state of clinical hyperandrogenism particularly hirsutism (presence of hair overgrowth), menstrual irregularities (often leading to difficulty conceiving), and elevated testosterone levels in the blood.

The cause of PCOS is still unknown but is thought to develop from an interplay of factors from heredity, fetal development, environment, and metabolism.

It because of this relative hormonal and biochemical imbalance that PCOS is associated with a high prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Women with this condition range from 30-70% depending on which part of the world they are. Other conditions in which PCOS is associated with are: metabolic complications (such as type 2 diabetes), pregnancy complications, anxiety and depression, endometrial cancer, and obstructive sleep disorder.

Most medical societies advocate lifestyle modification measures as an important facet in the management of PCOS. Increasing physical activity and exercise together with a sensible diet has been shown to lower the risk of diabetes and improve ovulatory cycles among women with PCOS.

Weight loss may further be achieved by lessening caloric intake by 500 Calories per day. Consuming foods with low glycemic indices may help stave off cravings during the day and help stabilize blood glucose levels. Monitoring water intake to 2 liters per day may also help reduce food cravings. As with any weight loss measure, a daily multivitamin supplement may be necessary to supply nutrients from the restrictive diet.

References:

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 194: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. (2018). Obstetrics & Gynecology, 131(6), e157–e171. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002656

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council/American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (NHMRC/ASRM/ESHRE). (n.d.). International evidence-based guideline on assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Legro, R. S., Arslanian, S. A., Ehrmann, D. A., Hoeger, K. M., Murad, M. H., Pasquali, R., & Welt, C. K. (2013). Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(12), 4565–4592. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2350

Ricardo Azziz, Enrico Carmina, ZiJiang Chen, Andrea Dunaif, Joop S. E. Laven, Richard S. Legro, Daria Lizneva, Barbara Natterson-Horowtiz, Helena J. Teede & Bulent O. Yildiz. (2016). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2(16057). Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201657